Express course on links to sources

Scientific articles are formed in 90% of cases one by one. When making links, it is enough for you to know the following:

  1. The links are inserted directly in the text of the scientific work in the form of [1, C. 2] or simply [1]. The links themselves should lead to the list of sources used, the first digit is the serial number, the second is the page of the location of the cited information
  2. The list of sources is arranged in alphabetical order at the end of the scientific article.

See an example of the design of sources in a scientific article.

Next, you will learn more about links to sources, existing types of sources and design rules.

List of sources


Pagination: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45

Types of bibliographic references

Descriptions of bibliographic references always differ depending on their location in the document, as well as the number of references to the same source. There are three types of links:

The first type of links is placed inside the work. The second one is at the bottom of the current document page. The last type is respectively after the text of the document.

The same source can be referenced several times, so primary and repeated references are distinguished.

Primary is if you refer to this text for the first time and repeated when you already repeat the link.

When making all these types of links, the following rules must be observed:

Such provisions in the design help not to get confused and clearly distinguish the types of bibliographic references.

Attention! The type of links depends on the requirements of the department or the scientific publication where your scientific article will be published. It should be remembered: YOU CANNOT use multiple types of links in a single work.

During the design of the link, you can safely use the symbols (. and -) that divide the area of the bibliographic description, but they should be divided by a dot.

The composition of the link must always include: a complete set of information that provides identification and search for the object of the link.

When you quote a text not from the first source, but from some other publication or article, then you need to make a link from words such as: Quoted from ; Quoted from the book.

There are cases when the text to which you make a link is impossible to make a logical and competent transition to the link due to the ambiguity of the connection between them. In this case, you need to use the following words: See; See about it.

It is not uncommon to emphasize that the source you are referring to is not one of many where you confirm the main text. Here you can use the words: See for example ; See in particular .

Always, if you specify auxiliary literature, it is worth presenting it in words: See also. The link you provided for comparison should begin with the words: Comparison.

The value of linking to the source

The correct indication of sources may seem like a simple task, as, indeed, it should be for a scientist, and yet, in general, there are too many cases when incorrect quoting is uncontrolled.

Famous words of Sir Isaac Newton l675 in a letter to Robert Hooke «If I could see further than others, it would be only because I would be standing on the shoulders of giants"can serve as a meaningful reminder that even the most famous scientists depended on their predecessors.

But, in fact, even this is not enough, since Newton did not explicitly specify the names of these giants. (As a historical digression, Newton's comment was not as noble in its intent as it might seem from the words. The two men were embroiled in a fierce dispute over some optical discoveries, and Newton, as a representative of a higher class, probably threw a stone into the garden of his rival, as a representative of a lower class. Regardless of the intention, however, such statements began to reflect the importance of confirming merit, recognizing authorship, in cases where it is necessary).

The link to the source serves as a fact-checking tool

Accuracy is very important for any written document, especially when it comes to science. The very fact of searching for a link serves as confirmation of the accuracy of rechecking a direct quote, ensures the correctness of the sentence you are paraphrasing, and also serves as a link to another study related to yours.

By quoting you become a better researcher

Some of the hallmarks of good research include attention to detail and the ability to discern patterns and draw parallels. The practice of quoting will help you with both of these aspects. The correct indication of sources entails a lot of details, such as specifying the correct page numbers, spelling the names of the authors, and, of course, the accuracy of the facts that you present in your own article or other work.

Attention to detail in one aspect automatically instills good habits in all areas of your research. As for the ability to identify trends and patterns, preparing a good bibliography will teach you how to perform this task (which is crucial in scientific analysis) due to the fact that a huge amount of information is concentrated in a small volume.

Good citation practice will make you a better author

We all strive to write an elegant article in which the language is as convincing as the content, and the correctness of the sources creates a solid foundation for achieving this goal. References to specific sources of various facts that we present allow us to eliminate signs of intellectual laziness, vague thinking and careless writing of generalizations, stencils and false statements, for example, when phrases "as everyone knows" or "say that" are replaced by specific sources.

When you quote sources correctly, you do not leave questions in the minds of your readers regarding your point of view. Moreover, when quoting, you can easily use an active language and avoid making numerous edits by journal editors and reviewers. Give good quotes, and you will be able to permanently delete the phrase "as they say" from your academic articles.

A good bibliography highlights your scientific knowledge

Bibliography This is just a compilation from various sources that you have read and quoted in your own manuscript, dissertation, book, etc. Thus, an extensive bibliography is naturally the hallmark of a well-read and well-informed scientist.

I remember at least one case when my colleagues complimented my bibliography more than the content of the article (although they also liked it). The most critical mistakes that I made, according to the reviewers, are omissions, i.e. when certain references are not read or not specified in the citation. The last thing you would like is for a reviewer to tell you that you don't know your field because you forgot to cite a critically important and well-known source from the scientific literature!

Careful approach to citation will increase your credibility as a scientist or specialist

This point is a simple consequence of the previous one. Indeed, a demonstration of erudition is like the icing on the cake with a good citation in an article. A more significant role that a good bibliography plays for researchers is gaining the author's trust from colleagues in their field. The better documented your research and arguments are, the more trust you inspire as an author among your colleagues.

Quoting allows you to better check your work

Any academic work is checked several times before finally going to print or being published on a website. For a reviewer, editor, or assistant editor whose job is simply to track down sources in the bibliography and make sure the citations are accurate, a smaller amount of work makes life a lot easier. Thus, your article is much more likely to be accepted after these several stages of editing with minimal criticism and positive reviews, if you have already taken the trouble to correctly indicate all the sources of your information and links to them.

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